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22st Annual OLC International Conference
November 16-18, 2016 | Orlando, Florida | Walt Disney World Swan/Dolphin Resort

OLC Innovate 2016 - Innovations in Blended and Online Learning
April 20-22, 2016 | New Orleans, LA | Sheraton New Orleans Hotel

Factors Influencing Adoption of Innovative Classroom Technologies

#Twitter: 
#blended01935
Presenter(s)
Jennifer Redd (San Jose State University, USA)
Session Information
July 7, 2015 - 5:30pm
Track: 
Faculty Development & Student Support
Areas of Special Interest: 
Innovative Blends
Major Emphasis of Presentation: 
Research and Evaluation
Institutional Level: 
Universities and Four Year Institutions
Audience Level: 
All
Session Type: 
Discovery Session
Location: 
Plaza Foyer
Session Duration: 
60 Minutes
Session: 
Discovery Session 1
Abstract

This session explores the factors that influence the adoption of innovative classroom technologies in a higher education context.

Extended Abstract

Abstract
With technology, changes occur daily. From faster networks to high quality web conferencing, the capabilities are expanding and potential opportunities to impact education are transforming. With the goal of providing faculty with opportunities to learn about the different technologies available and ways to integrate the technology into their curriculum in a meaningful way, developing an understanding of the factors that influence their adoption of technology-enhanced classrooms increases in importance. This study investigates the factors that influence faculty adoption of new classroom technologies. Teaching pedagogies, technology use, and levels of innovation will be explored.

Introduction
Innovation and a willingness to try new things has helped to shape the ever evolving educational landscape that is infused with technology. A blended course combines face-to-face and online instruction where 30% - 79% of the course content in an online format (Allen & Seaman, 2013). With the influx of blended learning course offerings, faculty armed with innovative ideas can use technology to transform classroom activities. Those faculty willing to adopt a blended learning approach often do so to encourage active learning and incorporate online content (Straumsheim, 2014). Missildine, Fountain, Summers, and Gosselin (2013) found that blended classrooms where technology is combined with innovative teaching strategies can result in increases in students' learning. A teacher as an innovator has the ability to incorporate a variety of different technologies into the curriculum. Marzilli et. al (2014) noted that faculty members used multiple technologies in their teaching, but also felt the use of technology can result in the loss of the human element/emotional connection that can occur in the classroom. Through a blended approach, the use of technology will not result in a loss of face-to-face interactions, but rather will complement them.

There are a multitude of factors that can affect a faculty member's teaching practices. Blackwell, Lauricella, and Wartella (2014) found many different extrinsic and intrinsic factors can impact the use of technology by educators. These factors included perceived value of the use of technology for learning as well as confidence and support in the implementation and use of these technologies (Blackwell, Lauricella, & Wartella, 2014). The adoption of innovative teaching strategies can be gradual - progressing more over time (Hennessy, Ruthven, & Brindley, 2005). Innovation may be based on a perceived need to implement strategies that can gain student attention, increase student learning, and meet learning outcomes. Overall, there are a variety of factors that can influence the adoption of technologies in an instructor's blended learning classroom.

Methodology
Participants and Context
The participants of this study are faculty members at a large higher education institution. The faculty participants include two groups. The first group includes faculty members currently teaching in a next generation classroom. A next generation classroom in this context is an innovative, technology-enhanced classroom - a classroom with advanced technologies and capabilities. These classrooms include the following features: interactive whiteboard, standard whiteboard, document camera, laptop computers, built-in computer, microphones, lecture capture (including video cameras), and hardware that allows for Telepresence/videoconferencing capabilities. The second group includes faculty members who are teaching in a different classroom type, which may/may not have technologies in it.

Procedures
The major research questions explored are the following: What factors influence faculty adoption of new classroom technologies? and To what extent do faculty technology comfort and teaching methods influence the willingness to use innovative classroom technologies? Faculty members will be invited to participate in the study via email. Participation involves three components: a survey, a classroom observation, and a short interview.

Data Analysis
This study looks at both the factors and attitudes of faculty members to explore the relationship between these variables and their willingness to be innovative in their teaching activities. Data will primarily be analyzed using factor analysis and path analysis. Additional data analysis includes item analysis, correlations, frequency distributions, and open coding. Observational data will be summarized to provide a context of that classroom in both the physical layout and the pedagogies used by the faculty members. Clarification of topics will be provided through follow-up interviews. The triangulation of data allows for consistency, commonalities, and relationships among data types to be reviewed. A discussion will provide suggestions on ways to encourage the adoption of innovative classroom technologies by a broader faculty audience based upon the findings.

What Will Be Shown
It is hoped that the information gained in this study will benefit society by discovering what factors influence faculty to adopt new and innovative classroom technologies. This will then relate to future professional development opportunities that will be available to faculty to encourage innovation. The information gathered may also provide guidance toward the inclusion of technologies in future classroom development.

References
Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group. Retrieved from http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/changingcourse.pdf
Blackwell, C., Lauricella, A. & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.013
Hennessy, S., Ruthven, K., & Brindley, S. (2005). Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: commitment, constraints, caution, and change. Journal of curriculum studies, 37(2), 155-192.
Marzilli, C., Delello, J., Marmion, S., McWhorter, R., Roberts, P., & Marzilli, T. S. (2014). Faculty attitudes towards integrating technology and innovation.arXiv preprint arXiv:1404.4334.
Missildine, K., Fountain, R., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the classroom to improve student performance and satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 597-599.
Straumsheim, C. (2014). Online Ed skepticism and self-sufficiency: Survey of faculty views on technology. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/survey/online-ed-skepticism-and-self-sufficiency-survey-faculty-views-technology

Lead Presenter

Dr. Redd is currently the Interim Director of Academic Technology at San Jose State University. Dr. Redd is an experienced teacher with specific expertise in teaching online. Dr. Redd is always looking at innovative ways to enhance the learning experience of students and to incorporate technology into the curriculum in meaningful ways.